Tresor-Economics

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Economic Assessments of Services Provided by Biodiversity

At a time when biodiversity is in decline, estimating the value of the services it provides makes it possible to measure the challenges of its preservation and to inform national and international decisions (post-2020 global framework and COP15). Although still fragmented and dependent on the methods used and the ecosystems analysed, existing estimates highlight the economic importance of biodiver... Lire la suite

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Labour Market Discrimination: How Is It Measured and What Is Its Economic Cost?

Discrimination is a difference in treatment based on a prohibited criterion, such as age, origin, religion or sexual orientation. Studies of different kinds confirm the existence of discrimination in the labour market in France. In addition to being illegal, discrimination in the labour market has economic costs for the whole economy. This justifies the existence of public policies aimed at reduci... Lire la suite

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China's Position Among Lenders in Sub-Saharan Africa

In 20 years, China has become Sub-Saharan Africa's largest creditor, holding 62.1% of its bilateral external debt in 2020, up from 3.1% in 2000. These loans are based on a complex institutional architecture, which favours tools derived from private loan contracts, securing both repayments and Chinese strategic interests. Since 2016, these flows have undergone a quantitative and geographical recali... Lire la suite

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Decarbonising Industry in France

Industry accounts for almost 20% of national greenhouse gas emissions, mainly driven by chemicals, non-metallic minerals and metallurgy. Since 2000, the decline in industrial emissions has been driven by improvements in the carbon efficiency of production. The probability of making decarbonisation investments increases with the size of the company, its productivity, its carbon energy consumption a... Lire la suite

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Assessment of the 2008 Reform of the Research Tax Credit

The research tax credit (CIR) is a tax measure to support companies' research and development (R&D) activities. Following the 2008 reform of the CIR, the claims associated with the CIR increased from €1.8bn in 2007 to €6.5bn in 2018. Existing studies highlight the positive effects of the reform at the microeconomic level. Evaluated using the DG Treasury's Mésange model, the CIR reform would have i... Lire la suite

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Emergency Measures in Europe During the COVID-19 Crisis

The response of European governments to the crisis has been unprecedented. These measures have made it possible to absorb a large part of the loss of household and corporate income in 2020. In total, for the euro zone, public administrations have absorbed 88% of the shock suffered by private agents (87% in France). In particular, households' disposable income has been preserved overall, thanks in... Lire la suite

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World economic outlook in autumn 2021: Catching up at uneven paces

Global activity should rebound significantly in 2021 thanks to vaccination campaigns and fiscal and monetary support measures. The United States would catch up with the 2019 level of activity as early as 2021, while European countries would regain it between the end of 2021 and the end of 2022 depending on the country. World trade would rebound in 2021, supported by the recovery in global activity... Lire la suite

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Skills and Intersectoral Labour Reallocation in the aftermath of the COVID-19 Crisis

The crisis could accelerate sectoral reallocations of jobs. Even after the expected rebound once the restrictions are lifted, activity in some sectors could remain below pre-crisis levels. This will imply job losses in some sectors and job creation in others, the extent of which will depend on the capacity of employment to reallocate. In order to support retraining, it is important to inform worke... Lire la suite

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Employee Financial Participation Schemes in France and Europe

9 million employees in France are covered by a value-sharing scheme: profit-sharing, participation or employee share ownership. They are present in all European countries, but differ in form or implementation. Some countries do not intervene; others adopt a more proactive strategy. France stands out for both the wide spread and the institutionalisation of these systems. It is the only country to h... Lire la suite

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Climate Strategies in the Nordic Countries

The Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have implemented innovative decarbonisation strategies. Pioneers in green public policies (carbon tax since 1990, support measures for low-income households, targeted support for industry, sustainable finance), they now have the four most advanced energy transitions in Europe. They are at the "technological frontier" in terms of i... Lire la suite