The Expected Benefits of the European Recovery Plans Introduced in the Wake of the COVID-19 Pandemic

European Union Member States agreed on an unprecedented joint response based on common debt to support the post-COVID-19 recovery. The European recovery is expected to foster the convergence in living standards within the EU, and support innovation, productive potential and the reduction of structural unemployment. It will also help take up the challenge of the green and digital transitions.... Lire la suite


Measurement of Government Consumption and Its Impacts on Output in 2020 and 2021

Public consumption encompasses the services provided to households by government departments. In the first half of 2020, it fell significantly in France and the United Kingdom while remaining stable or rising in Germany, Italy and Spain. These divergences are essentially due to different manners of measuring public service activity during the lockdowns. They argue in favour of prudent interpretati... Lire la suite