Italy and its Demographic Challenge

Italy could see a 20% decline in its population by 2070 as a result of its severe natural decrease. A dwindling and ageing population is hampering GDP growth and putting public finances and public debt sustainability under pressure. Measures – whose outcomes are as yet unclear – have been taken to mitigate the impact of unfavourable demographic trends, while the changes to the pension system for 2... Lire la suite


Public Deficit on Target in 2022 Despite the Energy Crisis

The 2022 public deficit stood at 4.7% of GDP, which was similar to the target stipulated in the 2022 Budget Bill drafted in the third quarter of 2021. This Bill could not foresee either the scale of the 2022 energy shock nor that of the measures implemented to support households and businesses. On the other hand, the capacity to revise forecasts rapidly and determined adherence to deficit commitme... Lire la suite


China's Public Finances: Short-Term Risks and Structural Issues

China’s public finances are organised in a complex and opaque manner, and are structured into various accounts with unclear scopes, along with off-balance sheet commitments. The important role of public investment in China's growth has resulted in high debt levels for local governments. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, local finances are at risk, which has made far-reaching reforms all the mo... Lire la suite