Tresor-Economics

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Italy and its Demographic Challenge

Italy could see a 20% decline in its population by 2070 as a result of its severe natural decrease. A dwindling and ageing population is hampering GDP growth and putting public finances and public debt sustainability under pressure. Measures – whose outcomes are as yet unclear – have been taken to mitigate the impact of unfavourable demographic trends, while the changes to the pension system for 2... Lire la suite

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Interest Rates, Growth and Public Debt Sustainability

The trajectory of public debt as a percentage of GDP depends on the accumulation of annual primary public balances and the spread between interest rates and growth rates. Historically, in France and in the major advanced countries, this gap has been highly volatile, alternating between positive and negative periods. Analysis of the conditions that have enabled debt ratios to be reduced in the past... Lire la suite

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The Dual Income Tax System in Sweden

Sweden was the first country to adopt a dual income tax system, with the progressive taxation of earned income and the flat-rate tax for capital income, under the 1991 tax reform. This reform, which set out to lower taxes and broaden tax bases, has had a positive long-term impact on business investment and labour supply. It was then followed by a significant cut in aggregate tax and social securit... Lire la suite

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World Economic Outlook in Autumn 2023: The Economy is Holding Out Against Rising Interest Rates

Global economic activity should hold up better in 2023 than forecast in the spring, but growth should be below its pre-crisis average in both 2023 and 2024. While activity in some economies should continue to benefit from catch-up effects, growth in advanced countries should be held back by the rise in financing costs. In the emerging countries, economic activity is likely to remain dynamic, despi... Lire la suite

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The Market for Safe Assets

The holding and market of certain so-called safe assets play an essential role in financial stability. The definition of these assets is not consensual, as various qualities can contribute to the safety offered by a financial security: countercyclicality, liquidity, credit quality and stability. The study identifies a set of securities that play the role of safe assets according to these criteria... Lire la suite

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Public Deficit on Target in 2022 Despite the Energy Crisis

The 2022 public deficit stood at 4.7% of GDP, which was similar to the target stipulated in the 2022 Budget Bill drafted in the third quarter of 2021. This Bill could not foresee either the scale of the 2022 energy shock nor that of the measures implemented to support households and businesses. On the other hand, the capacity to revise forecasts rapidly and determined adherence to deficit commitme... Lire la suite

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What Factors Could Drive the Reorganisation of Global Value Chains?

While recent crises have been interpreted as signalling the end of globalisation, trade continues to grow and goods are travelling as far as before. Globalisation is, however, taking on a new form: the composition and geography of trade have changed. These changes are likely to intensify owing to companies’ strategies to secure their supply chains, climate change, various government policies and g... Lire la suite

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Emerging Economies and Climate Change

Despite being less responsible for climate change, emerging countries are more vulnerable to its effects than their advanced counterparts. Countries located in tropical areas will be more impacted by the physical effects of climate change, while the sectoral structure of African and Asian countries is set to amplify their economic sensitivity. Adaptive capacity varies from country to country and i... Lire la suite

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China's Public Finances: Short-Term Risks and Structural Issues

China’s public finances are organised in a complex and opaque manner, and are structured into various accounts with unclear scopes, along with off-balance sheet commitments. The important role of public investment in China's growth has resulted in high debt levels for local governments. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, local finances are at risk, which has made far-reaching reforms all the mo... Lire la suite

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Japan's Growth Drivers

Japan’s growth, which was very strong until the 1990s, is now being reined in by ageing capital and a shrinking population. The country is addressing these issues and is banking on an increase in productivity to reignite growth. In this respect, it has significant headroom both as regards the digital transition and in terms of structural changes to the labour market.... Lire la suite