Tresor-Economics

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World economic outlook in Spring 2021: an uneven recovery

Global activity would rebound in 2021 as the health situation gradually improves. The United States would catch up in 2021 with the level of activity in 2019, Germany would regain it in 2022, while Spain and Italy would remain below it by that time. World trade rebounds in 2021, supported by the normalisation of industrial production, and trade increases in 2022 with activity. The evolution of the... Lire la suite

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A Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism for the European Union

The EU plans to introduce a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to tackle carbon leakage more effectively. This phenomenon corresponds to an increase in emissions in the rest of the world as a result of the implementation of more ambitious climate policies, such as carbon pricing, by some countries. A CBAM will enhance the effectiveness of European climate policies, and needs to address lega... Lire la suite

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Development finance in Sub-Saharan Africa in the times of Covid-19

Achieving sustainable development goals by 2030 requires a significant increase in development financing, which has been made even more difficult by the global health crisis related to COVID-19. This note assesses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on private capital flows in sub-Saharan Africa and examines options for long-term development financing in the post-COVID-19 period in the countries con... Lire la suite

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French emigration throughout the globe: What does the increase reveal?

Although recent data confirm the trend of an increase in the number of French people leaving France for other countries over the last fifteen years, emigration rates for France remain among the lowest in the OECD. Working-age people are over-represented among French emigrants, and the latter appear on average to be better educated than the natives who remain in France. The gap between the educatio... Lire la suite

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Vulnerability of French and European imports

Our economy needs products and raw materials of foreign origin, especially for our industrial production, which can lead to vulnerabilities in the event of supply disruptions. However, an analysis of the concentration of French imports and their potential diversification reveals a limited number of vulnerable products. Security strategies at the level of companies, States and the European Union ca... Lire la suite

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The contribution of creative destruction to productivity growth in France

Job reallocations between companies contribute significantly to productivity gains in France. These reallocations take place both between permanent companies and through the phenomenon of creative destruction, i.e. the entry and exit of companies. Whereas, until the 2008 crisis, productivity gains were mainly due to permanent companies, creative destruction contributed much more to productivity ga... Lire la suite

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The economic determinants of social crises in Latin America

Despite a rise in the standard of living that has led to a reduction in poverty, inequalities remain high, particularly between urban and rural areas in terms of access to public services. These inequalities are exacerbated in the context of a marked slowdown in growth since 2011 and limited budgetary room for manoeuvre to support the economy and reduce inequalities. Various protest movements have... Lire la suite

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Digitalisation in France's business sector

Digital transformation is a multi-dimensional process, a vector of innovation and feeds productivity gains. The degree to which French businesses have digitalised is comparable to the rest of Europe. As abroad, SMEs and a fortiori VSEs lag behind large companies in terms of digitisation. The health crisis has shown that digital technology contributes to the resilience of the economy by allowing fl... Lire la suite

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What do we know about the economic effects of remote work?

Many French people have tested teleworking during the first confinement and could keep the taste of it. A generalisation of telework, even if it remains partial, would have a potentially significant impact on the world of work and beyond. If implemented under the right conditions, telework can represent an opportunity for the economy, going beyond its current health benefits alone.... Lire la suite

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Female labour force participation in South Asia

While gender equality is in itself a crucial development goal that addresses moral and societal issues, it is also of significant economic interest. Realizing women's full economic potential would have a major impact on the growth of economies, particularly in South Asia, the region of the world where labour market participation is the most unequal between the sexes.... Lire la suite