Tresor-Economics

Miniature

TARGET2 Imbalances in the Euro Area

TARGET2 is the Eurosystem's own system, which is essential for the functioning of the euro area and allows the settlement of financial transactions between commercial banks located in different countries of the euro area. The balances associated with TARGET2 have increased since 2008 as a result of the ECB's monetary policy. They are expected to decline with, inter alia, the gradual end of the ECB... Lire la suite

Miniature

Do road users pay a fair price for their journeys?

This article details the externalities and charges on road traffic and finds that road use, excluding toll motorways and petrol vehicles in rural areas, is generally under-priced. A better coverage of the external costs of road transport would require a reduction of its externalities and a more adapted pricing, in particular in urban areas and on national roads, where cost coverage is particularly... Lire la suite

Miniature

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on French firms

As part of the work of the Coeuré Committee, the DG Treasury has developed a micro-simulation tool to estimate the impact of the crisis, as well as of the measures put in place to respond to it, on the financial situation of French companies. The results show that although the financial situation deteriorated in 2020 compared to a year without a crisis, public policies - especially partial activit... Lire la suite

Miniature

World economic outlook in Spring 2021: an uneven recovery

Global activity would rebound in 2021 as the health situation gradually improves. The United States would catch up in 2021 with the level of activity in 2019, Germany would regain it in 2022, while Spain and Italy would remain below it by that time. World trade rebounds in 2021, supported by the normalisation of industrial production, and trade increases in 2022 with activity. The evolution of the... Lire la suite

Miniature

A Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism for the European Union

The EU plans to introduce a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to tackle carbon leakage more effectively. This phenomenon corresponds to an increase in emissions in the rest of the world as a result of the implementation of more ambitious climate policies, such as carbon pricing, by some countries. A CBAM will enhance the effectiveness of European climate policies, and needs to address lega... Lire la suite

Miniature

The Economic Effects of Epidemics

The rapid spread of the Covid-19 epidemic in China, its evolution into a global pandemic and the contraction of activity are a reminder of the vulnerability of economies to infectious diseases. Past epidemics have had clear economic effects through several channels, ranging from a few tenths of a point to several points of GDP depending on their severity. The effects of the current pandemic would... Lire la suite

Miniature

Development finance in Sub-Saharan Africa in the times of Covid-19

Achieving sustainable development goals by 2030 requires a significant increase in development financing, which has been made even more difficult by the global health crisis related to COVID-19. This note assesses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on private capital flows in sub-Saharan Africa and examines options for long-term development financing in the post-COVID-19 period in the countries con... Lire la suite

Miniature

Macroprudential mortgage lending measures

Poorly managed housing debt poses significant risks to financial stability. In France, household housing debt has doubled since 2004 as a proportion of gross disposable income. This study compares two macroprudential measures. Limiting the effort rate and maturity allows households to adjust their loan requests, while controlling the monthly debt burden. Controlling the debt ratio reduces aggregat... Lire la suite

Miniature

Venture capital and development of French start-ups

The high mortality of start-ups in the industrialisation phase ("Death Valley") appears lower in France than internationally. Start-ups' sustained need for external funding makes them vulnerable to "predatory acquisitions", whose aim is to remove the innovation from the target. These acquisitions remain moderate, however (less than 6% of start-up purchases by large groups in France).... Lire la suite

Miniature

French emigration throughout the globe: What does the increase reveal?

Although recent data confirm the trend of an increase in the number of French people leaving France for other countries over the last fifteen years, emigration rates for France remain among the lowest in the OECD. Working-age people are over-represented among French emigrants, and the latter appear on average to be better educated than the natives who remain in France. The gap between the educatio... Lire la suite