Tresor-Economics

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Senior Employment in France

In France, the employment rate of people aged 55 and over is increasing steadily, but it remains low in comparison with Europe after the age of 60. In addition to a relatively early retirement age, other conditions linked to the labour supply of older people may explain this lower activity: arduousness, weak financial incentives. On the demand side, the gap (real or perceived) between productivity... Lire la suite

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Emerging Economies in Global Value Chains

The integration of emerging countries into world trade, particularly China, has disrupted global trade and production chains. The Chinese and Korean examples show that this integration process is taking place in successive phases. Starting with a specialisation based on their comparative advantage, emerging countries then diversify their production before specialising again by moving upmarket and... Lire la suite

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The European Union's New Trade Relationship With the United Kingdom

The trade negotiations between the UK and the EU were exceptional in that they were about defining the contours of a less close relationship with a very close partner. The negotiations resulted in an agreement that respects British policy autonomy while preserving the integrity of the European single market. The agreement is characterised by the absence of tariffs and quotas, but it includes origi... Lire la suite

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Debt in Sub-Saharan Africa

Since the cancellation of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative, sub-Saharan African countries have re-debted and their debt composition has become more complex. The Covid-19 crisis exacerbated these vulnerabilities and led the Paris Club and the G20 to implement multilateral initiatives. Beyond the debt service suspension initiative, the Paris Club and the G20 agreed on a common framewor... Lire la suite

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Business Failures in France during the COVID-19 Crisis

The number of business failures fell sharply during the Covid crisis. Public support prevented many companies from going bankrupt, particularly the smallest and those in the sectors most affected by the crisis. However, an analysis of the companies that failed shows that market selection continued to play a role, with the most fragile companies continuing to enter into legal proceedings during the... Lire la suite

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France's Sovereign Debt Issuance Strategy

The French sovereign debt issuance strategy has two main objectives: to ensure financing at the best cost for the taxpayer and to limit the debt refinancing risk. Agence France Trésor's issuance policy translates these objectives into practice by maximising the liquidity of its bonds and ensuring that it maintains a permanent capacity to place its securities with a diversified and resilient invest... Lire la suite

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EU-North Africa Association Agreements and Trade Integration

The association agreements between the European Union and North Africa, concluded from the end of the 1990s, have encouraged an increase in trade between the two shores of the Mediterranean and an intensification of trade in certain industrial sectors. However, the EU's market share has declined as a result of the growth of emerging countries. New avenues of cooperation with North African countrie... Lire la suite

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Cyber Risk in the Financial Sector

Cyber risk is increasing rapidly with the digitalisation of the economy, and the Covid crisis has accelerated this trend. The financial sector is particularly targeted and cyber risk, while it has not yet led to a major crisis, can become systemic and threaten financial stability. Various public policies can be implemented to mitigate this risk.... Lire la suite

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Economic Assessments of Services Provided by Biodiversity

At a time when biodiversity is in decline, estimating the value of the services it provides makes it possible to measure the challenges of its preservation and to inform national and international decisions (post-2020 global framework and COP15). Although still fragmented and dependent on the methods used and the ecosystems analysed, existing estimates highlight the economic importance of biodiver... Lire la suite

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Labour Market Discrimination: How Is It Measured and What Is Its Economic Cost?

Discrimination is a difference in treatment based on a prohibited criterion, such as age, origin, religion or sexual orientation. Studies of different kinds confirm the existence of discrimination in the labour market in France. In addition to being illegal, discrimination in the labour market has economic costs for the whole economy. This justifies the existence of public policies aimed at reduci... Lire la suite