Tresor-Economics

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Trésor-Economics No. 253 - French exports of goods to the EU

France is Europe's 3rd largest exporter to the EU, despite a decline since 2000. Enlargement towards the East has indeed favoured the countries located more in the centre of Europe. France also experienced a deterioration in its cost competitiveness and its positioning in the range in the 2000s, while strengthening its positions in aeronautics and certain service sectors. Measures taken in recent... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 252 - Use of macroeconomic modelling in public policy evaluation

Macroeconomic models are used to forecast spontaneous economic developments or to assess the effects of a reform on variables such as employment or GDP. The Mésange model, co-developed by the DG Treasury and INSEE, is used to assess ex ante the macroeconomic effect of reforms and thus assist in the development of public policies. This type of model is based on theoretical assumptions and empirical... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 251 - Gender budgeting in France

Despite the efforts made over the past decade in many countries to promote equality between women and men, inequalities persist, particularly in the labour market. Some public policies have a differentiated impact on men and women and can create and amplify inequalities, or on the contrary reduce them. Gender budgeting consists of explicitly taking into account the objective of equality between wo... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 250 - Digital platforms and competition

The dominant position of certain major digital platforms, and their role as intermediaries in certain markets, raises increasing concerns about their ability to restrict competition in and for these markets. Faced with these issues, a strengthening of competition policy and the introduction of specific regulatory tools appear desirable.... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 249 - Part-time employment and hiring difficulties in Germany

Germany is distinguished from France by a high participation rate and a particularly low unemployment rate, which is accompanied by strong tensions on the labour market. However, Germany is also characterised by a high share of part-time workers: mainly women who would like to work more but without moving to full-time work. The government is taking steps to remove some of the disincentives and fac... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 248 - Composition and competitiveness of the French economy

France's sectoral specialisation became distorted between 2006 and 2016: it is concentrated in high-tech industries and high value-added services; it is declining in the rest of the medium-tech industry. The evolution of productive specialisation in France mainly reflects the concentration of comparative advantages in promising activities such as aeronautics, tourism and business services.... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 247 - Combating France's medical deserts

The "My Health 2022" plan proposes responses to the problem of medical deserts: the overhaul of health studies, the deployment of 400 general practitioners in under-dense areas, 1,000 territorial professional health communities, and the introduction of medical assistants. Other measures could reinforce the fight against medical deserts: encouraging people to settle in under-dense areas, adapting s... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 246 - What lessons can be drawn from Switzerland's high standard of living?

The high standard of living in Switzerland compared to OECD countries is due to a high level of integration into the labour market and a high working time for full-time employees. Switzerland also benefits from the agreement on the free movement of persons with the European Union, which has facilitated the reception of qualified personnel. Finally, the contribution to value creation of the manufac... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 245 - Southeast Asia faces an ageing future

Population ageing in South-East Asia is occurring rapidly (25 years) and at a relatively modest level of per capita income. This phenomenon could have an impact on the development trajectory of some countries in the region, with a "middle income trap" that may eventually close in Thailand and Vietnam. However, the rapid increase in health needs offers many opportunities for technical cooperation a... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 244 - Effects of initial trade tensions between China and the United States

This Eco-Treasury analyses the effects of tariff measures between China and the United States until May 10, 2019. Trade tensions between China and the United States have resulted in a significant and rapid reduction in bilateral trade in surcharged goods. Macroeconomically, China seems to be more penalized than the United States. Globally, the effects of trade tensions are more significant than ex... Lire la suite