Tresor-Economics

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Trésor-Economics No. 228 - Labour market reforms in Italy

In 2015, the Renzi government adopted a labour market reform, the "Jobs Act", in response to a relatively low labour force participation rate and a high degree of dualism in the labour market, . In addition and unlike its trading partners, productivity gains have stalled in Italy, which is becoming less competitive.Building on the 2012 Fornero reforms, the Jobs Act relaxed protections for employee... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 227 - Global outlook in autumn 2018: growth still robust despite headwinds

After a sharp climb to 3.7% in 2017, the strength of global growth is set to last throughout 2018 and 2019 (3.8%), driven by an acceleration of economic activity in the United States and many emerging countries, in spite of a downturn in the other major advanced countries.In the United States, the pace of growth is expected to pick up markedly in 2018 on the back of fiscal stimulus, prior to a mod... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 226 - A tentative evaluation of some macroeconomic effects of the PACTE bill

The Business Growth and Transformation Bill, known by its French acronym PACTE, was presented at a Cabinet meeting on 18 June 2018. This bill includes provisions targeting business creations and growth, corporate financing and insolvency procedures, innovation, and profit-sharing. An ex ante evaluation of measures whose effects have already been covered in the economic literature, based on economi... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 225 - Is the productivity slowdown in emerging countries here to stay?

Growth in emerging countries has been on the decline since 2010, with average annual rates of 5.0% between 2011 and 2016, after 6.6% between 2000 and 2007. This slowdown, common to all emerging regions, is more marked in Latin America and Asia.A fall-off in total factor productivity (TFP) growth explains a large part of the decline in growth in these countries. This slowdown came after a rapid tec... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 224 - Lessons from foreign urban charging schemes

Car use generates costs for society in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, traffic jams and air pollution. In order to ensure economic efficiency, the cost of driving for car users should reflect these external costs alongside private costs (car purchase, repairs and fuel). This is currently not the case in France where, most of the time, car users do not pay for the social cost of their rides. Thi... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 223 - What do business surveys tell us about the position of the economy in the business cycle?

Knowing the position of the economy in the business cycle is important for implementing economic policy. It makes it possible, for example, to draw up a medium-term growth scenario: an overheating economy is likely to slow down whereas a demand deficient economy could beat its potential growth rate. Similarly, it makes it possible to identify the structural component of the general government bala... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 222 - Renewable energy sources for heating

In France, energy consumption for heating accounts for nearly half of final energy consumption. Energy for heating still largely comes from fossil fuel sources (with more than 60% of energy for heating coming from natural gas, fuel oil and coal), making this sector a crucial battleground for decarbonising the economy.Fuelwood, mainly used to produce heat, is currently the leading renewable energy... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 221 - Institutions and development: Insights from the Institutional Profiles Database (IPD)

The Institutional Profiles Database (IPD) was created in 2001 and now covers 144 countries that account for 99.6% of the world economy. Developed by the Directorate General of the Treasury, the IPD's goal is to shed light on the role played by institutions (political, economic, social, etc.) in development policies. It attempts to provide a quantitative measure of countries' institutional characte... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 220 - Is higher wage growth on the horizon in Japan?

After the 1997 economic crisis, Japanese companies were burdened by high levels of debt. They attempted to deleverage by lowering their wage bill, through both job cuts and wage restraint. Japan's unemployment rate, which had been below 3.5% until 1997, then rose significantly to peak at 5.5% in June 2002. Average per capita wages declined by 0.7% p.a. between 1998 and 2013, keeping Japan in defla... Lire la suite

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Trésor-Economics No. 219 - The efficiency of the French public research system

In 2015, France was in fifth place amongst major OECD countries for public R&D spending. Including defence-related R&D, this spending accounted for 0.86% of GDP, putting France above the OECD average but leaving it trailing the leading pack (Nordic countries, South Korea and Germany) and below the Lisbon Strategy target of 1% of GDP.Specific features characterise the organisational structure and g... Lire la suite