Italy and its Demographic Challenge

Italy could see a 20% decline in its population by 2070 as a result of its severe natural decrease. A dwindling and ageing population is hampering GDP growth and putting public finances and public debt sustainability under pressure. Measures – whose outcomes are as yet unclear – have been taken to mitigate the impact of unfavourable demographic trends, while the changes to the pension system for 2... Lire la suite


Japan's Growth Drivers

Japan’s growth, which was very strong until the 1990s, is now being reined in by ageing capital and a shrinking population. The country is addressing these issues and is banking on an increase in productivity to reignite growth. In this respect, it has significant headroom both as regards the digital transition and in terms of structural changes to the labour market.... Lire la suite


Unequal Access to Day Nurseries and Related Economic Issues

Formal childcare for young children before they start nursery school (école maternelle) has a dual objective: to support parents’ professional activity and to foster children’s cognitive development. Whilst the current shortfall in the childcare offering in France hampers the reduction of social and gender inequality, a number of measures are increasing recourse to childcare in day nurseries (crèc... Lire la suite