European Union's Emissions Trading System and Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence for France, Italy and Spain

This working paper seeks to study the effect of the European Union Emissions Trading System on total factor productivity for manufacturing firms in France, Italy and Spain, from 2000 to 2017. As a general rule, the instrument is not found to be detrimental to regulated firms’ productivity. However, firms have reacted differently depending on their initial efficiency, size, financial constraints, s... Lire la suite